15 March 2022, Monday

Which Cancer Can Spread in the Bone?

Overview:

Bone cancer may start in any bone in the body, but the pelvis and long bones in the arms and legs are most affected. Bone cancer is very uncommon, accounting for less than 1% of all cancers. In addition, bone tumors that aren’t malignant are much more prevalent than cancerous ones.

When cancer spreads to the bones, it’s known as “bone metastasis.” It’s also called a metastatic bone disease or secondary bone cancer since cancer did not originate in the bones.

Bone metastasis occurs in people who previously had cancer or advanced cancer. All cancers have the potential to spread to the bones. However, some cancers, such as breast and prostate cancer, are more prone to spread to the bones.

Types of bone cancer

The following are the most prevalent kinds of bone cancer:

Osteosarcoma:

The most frequent kind of bone cancer is osteosarcoma. The malignant cells in this tumor develop bone. The leg or arm bones are the most often affected by this kind of bone cancer in children and young people. Osteosarcomas may extend outside of bones in rare cases (extraskeletal osteosarcomas).

Chondrosarcoma:

The second most frequent kind of bone cancer is chondrosarcoma. Chondrosarcoma commonly develops in the pelvis, legs, or arms in middle-aged and older individuals. It is a malignant cancer and it also affects the cartilage.

Ewing sarcoma:

The pelvis, legs, and arms are the most prevalent sites for Ewing sarcoma tumors in children and young adults.

The Big 5

Cancer in the bones is frequently the result of cancer elsewhere in the body. For example, secondary bone cancer occurs when lung cancer has migrated to your bones.

Metastatic cancer is any cancer that spreads from one place of your body to another. As a result, some cancers are more likely to spread to the bones, and these cancers are known as The Big 5.

These types of cancer include:

  1. Breast cancer
  2. Prostate cancer
  3. Thyroid cancer
  4. Kidney cancer
  5. Lung cancer

Aside from these Big 5 cancers, any form of cancer may migrate to the bones. Cancers of the liver and stomach, pancreatic cancer, colon cancer, and others.

Treatment of primary bone cancer

The following are some of the most common therapies for bone cancer:

  • Limb salvage surgery: Your doctor will remove the cancerous portion of the bone but not the surrounding muscles, tendons, or other structures. They replaced the bone with a metallic implant.
  • Amputation: Your doctor may remove a limb if a tumor is big or has reached your nerves and blood vessels. After that, you could acquire a prosthetic limb.
  • Radiation therapy: With powerful X-rays, cancer cells are killed, and tumors are minimized. Doctors often utilize it in conjunction with surgery.
  • Chemotherapy: Cancer medicines are used to destroy tumor cells. Your doctor may prescribe it before surgery, after surgery, or for metastatic cancer.
  • Targeted therapy: This therapy treats cancer cells with particular genetic, protein, or other alterations in or around them.

Bone metastasis

Treatment for metastases is frequently determined by the location of the metastases and the source of tumor cells. Radiation, medication, and surgery are all options for treatment.

Radiation:

The use of radiation treatment to delay the progression of bone metastasis is common. The types of radiation therapy used include:

  1. Local field radiation: Your doctor directs radiation towards the tumor and adjacent tissue. In 50–60% of situations, it may eliminate discomfort.
  2. Hemi-body radiation: Your doctor will use radiation to treat a significant area of your body. If you have many bone metastases, your doctor may do this procedure.
  3. Radioisotope therapy: A radioactive medicine is injected into your vein by your doctor.

Medications:

Medications Are an important part of bone metastasis treatment. This may include:

  • Bisphosphonates are bone-building medicines that may help minimize bone loss.
  • Chemotherapy is used to destroy tumor cells and shrink tumors.
  • Hormone treatment is used to slow the production of specific hormones in tumors such as breast cancer and prostate cancer.

Surgery:

Surgery may be required when your bones have broken or are about to fracture. Your doctor may surgically remove tumors. They may use fixation devices that are directly attached to the surrounding bone. In addition, bone cement may be used to reinforce your bone structure.

Cryoablation:

Radiofrequency ablation, also known as cryoablation, is a technique for shrinking tumors by heating or freezing cancer cells using a probe.

Bone metastases occur when cancer cells break away from the original growth site and migrate to bone tissue. Bone metastases are a kind of advanced cancer that has spread to the bones.

Bone metastases may develop in any bone, although the spine, pelvis, and thigh are the most prevalent sites. Bone metastases may arise years after cancer therapy, or it might be the first indicator that you have cancer.

Pain and broken bones may result from bone metastases. Although these secondary malignancies of the bone are difficult to cure, therapies exist to ease symptoms and extend life. Treatments for bone metastases may help ease pain and other symptoms.

Symptoms of bone metastasis

Many cancer patients experience bone metastases. Because of changes in your bone structure, bone metastases may cause significant pain and neurological damage. Other signs and symptoms of bone metastases are:

  • Weak bones
  • Calcium levels in the blood are high, producing nausea and disorientation.
  • A loss of urinary or bowel control
  • Weakness in the legs
  • Anemia and a decreased blood cell count owing to bone marrow loss

Your bones may be badly damaged by metastatic cancer. Metastatic tumors may cause osteolytic bone loss by destroying surrounding bone tissue. Osteolytic injury is most often caused by malignancies that begin in the following:

  • Colon
  • Kidney
  • Lung
  • Thyroid

Pathological bone fractures may be caused by both osteoblastic and osteolytic destruction. A pathological bone fracture is caused by a disease rather than one caused by an external force to the bone.

This injury causes bones to shatter during regular activities, not from falling or pressure. Damage to the spine’s bones may impact the neurons in the spinal cord, resulting in neurological issues.

Causes

Cancer cells break away from the initial tumor and migrate to the bones to cause bone metastases.

Doctors are unclear as to why certain malignancies spread. It’s also unclear why certain tumors spread to the bones rather than other prevalent metastasis locations like the liver.

Treatment of bone metastases

Treatment for metastases is frequently determined by the location of the metastases and the source of tumor cells. Radiation, medication, and surgery are all options for treatment.

Radiation:

The use of radiation treatment to delay the progression of bone metastasis is common. The types of radiation therapy used include:

  1. Local field radiation: Your doctor directs radiation towards the tumor and adjacent tissue. In 50–60% of situations, it may eliminate discomfort.
  2. Hemi-body radiation: Your doctor will use radiation to treat a significant area of your body. If you have many bone metastases, your doctor may do this procedure.
  3. Radioisotope therapy: A radioactive medicine is injected into your vein by your doctor.

Medications:

Medications Are an important part of bone metastasis treatment. This may include:

  • Bisphosphonates are bone-building medicines that may help minimize bone loss.
  • Chemotherapy is used to destroy tumor cells and shrink tumors.
  • Hormone treatment is used to slow the production of specific hormones in tumors such as breast cancer and prostate cancer.

Surgery:

Surgery may be required when your bones have broken or are about to fracture. Your doctor may surgically remove tumors. They may use fixation devices that are directly attached to the surrounding bone. In addition, bone cement may be used to reinforce your bone structure.

Cryoablation:

Radiofrequency ablation, also known as cryoablation, is a technique for shrinking tumors by heating or freezing cancer cells using a probe.

Conclusion

Bone metastases are a type of advanced cancer of the bone. Unfortunately, doctors aren’t always able to remove all cancer cells. However, various treatments are available to reduce the size of metastases and slow their growth. This can also help alleviate pain and other symptoms while increasing patients’ quality of life.

Get in touch with our specialists for more information on bone metastases now!

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    Dr. Chetan Anchan

    MS - Orthopaedics, Diploma in Orthopaedics,

    FCPS - Mid. & Gynae, MBBS

    Dr. Chetan Anchan is an expert and well known orthopaedic surgeon and oncologist from Mumbai. He has a vast experience in treating all types of Malignant and Benign, Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors, and Skeletal Metastases.

    To book an appointment, call: +91 – 93244 27302

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